Accomplishments (2002-03 to 2011-12)
The IARI Regional Station, Pusa, a more than 100 years old historical institute/research station, is situated in Samastipur district of Bihar in the ‘U’ shaped southwestern lap of the famous river, Burhi Gandak. The station is actively engaged in the development of wheat varieties for irrigated and rainfed conditions of the North Eastern Plain Zone, in general, and Bihar, in particular. The station is also actively engaged in the production of breeder foundation and truthfully labeled seeds of wheat, rice, hybrid rice, pigeon pea, moong, urd, lentil, maize, toria, tobacco, cauliflower, okra and papaya and dissemination of crop production technology to the farming community.
- Ten varieties HP 1862 to HP1871 entered in the coordinated programme. 450 fresh crosses were attempted and 2000 breeding lines in different generations evaluated. More than 12 lines like W76, Chirya-3 ‘S’, BW1052, PB1052, Milan Shai #7, Longmai, Ning 8319, Shanghai-4, Bagula, BW 14999, T3336, Shai#7, were used as resistant donors against foliar blight incidence. HW2045, DBW14, HUW543, WR544 and WR251 and other lines were used for transfer of THT.
- Breeding Material: A Novel Achievement:- During the emasculation one of the plants had flowers with stigma and style divided from the middle, The variety was NDA-99-2. One pod was harvested having 3 grains, the pod was crooked shape. These three seeds were sown this year and it is surprising to note that all these three plants are breeding true i.e. having stigma & style divided from the middle. It is yet to consider the consequences and relevance of this phenomenon. However the aberration is being reported for records.
- F1 65 single crosses from 11 different combinations have been sown in F1, these parents are
DNORS Agronomic bases ICPL- 84023 DA-11 88009 Bahar 332 Pusa-9 810 Pusa(B) 34 6986 Pusa (B) 33 7480 Pusa (B) 33-1 8006 Pusa (B) 2-7 8606 WRG-27 9150 DA 99-11 DA 96-13
- F2- 32 lines have been sown in F2 and selections have been made.
- F3 - 59 lines have been sown in F4 and screenings for desirable characters have been done and selections made.
- F5, F6 118 single plant progenies from different crosses have been made.
- Standardization of fertilizer application techniques for wheat under Zero tillage situation
Under this experiment different methods of nitrogenous fertilizer application of Zero tillage situation was evaluated against conventional system and the results indicated that placement of 1/3rd N fertilizer as basal and 2/3N at 1st node state was superior for zero tillage situation than other techniques commonly followed. The same trial is being repeated for the confirmation of the result.
Nine promising cultures such as HP 1872 (AVT-Res. Irr.SHZ), HP 1873 and Hp 1874 (NIVT-5A) HP 1875 (NIVT-1A), HP 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879(NIVT-1B) and HP 1880 (NIVT-3) were developed showing good promise in coordinated trials.
Selections for per plant yield Range:
Minimum- 1.00 gm (LGG468, 469)
Selections for 100 grain weight Range-
Minimum-3.00 gm (ML 520)
Selections for Environmental adaptability:
Final selections have been made on the basis of three years observations, for
- As a result of gene pyramiding, the culture HP1879 consistently showed superiority both in Yield and resistance against three rusts and promoted to 2nd year A\/T (Restricted irrigation) in Southern Hill Zone.
- A good number of promising cultures with diverse genetic background have qualified for different NIVTS and shows very good promise. They can be enlisted as HP 1882, 1883 in NIVT- IA, HP 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1892 in NIVT 1B, HP 1889, 1890 in NlVT—3 and HP 1891in Nl\/T-7.
- Introgression of FBR / FBT (Foliar blight resistant / tolerant) gene from chirya-3 and Agropyron curyfolium derivative W 76 at agronomically superior genotypes are found very promising and occupied place in CVTs such as PS 752 (chirya-3, HP—1731) in CVT- 1,PS768 (chirya-3, HP-1731) in CVT—3 and PS 762 (W—76 HD-2329 Lr 24 + Sr 24) in CVT-3. 4-05
- Seed production: 24 Kg seed of papaya cv. Pusa Dwarf was produced and sold during 2004-05
- Out of the programme, the promising culture HP 1883 was promoted to AVT (TS) irrigated condition in NEP Zone showing fair degree of resistance against black, brown and yellow rust.
- 14 cultures ranging for HP 1993 to HP 1906 were found very promising deriving resgene form diverse genetic background and are under evaluation in different NIVTs of coordinated trials.
- Outstanding cultures developed form our programme having dwarf stature and very good tilliring efficiency showing synchrony is maturity and resistance to brown rust and Helminthosporium leaf blight are 2643/4723 (Chirya-3/W76//HP1761), 2561/4744 (+ HD 2687/HP 1761), 2648/4876(+HD 2733/HW 2044), 2557/4729, 2560/4729 (= HD 2733/GW 273), 2322/4681 (= HP 1744/HW 2043).
- Legume incorporation between wheat and paddy crop in wheat-rice rotation system of cultivation.
This year’s results have confirmed the findings already gained in previous two years. Now this can be concluded that the overall yield of wheat-rice system as a whole was improved by incorporation of gain legume like urad in between rice and wheat crops of this system. An additional advantage of improvement of physical and chemical nature of soil was also recorded when legume incorporation was made in the system.
Four entries found significantly superior to the checks were promoted to Advance Varietal Trials in both NEP and NWP Zones. HP 1900 (HD 2733/CP.305.RK-45) occupied place in AVT (TS) Irrigated and HP 1903 (PBW 343/RAJ 3765//HW 2045) in AVT (LS) Irrigated condition of NEP Zone while HP 1894 (PBW 343/I—IP 1761//I-IW 2045) and HP 1896 (HD 2733/HP 1761) in AVT (TS) Irrigated condition of NWP Zone. 9 Entries ® viz., HP 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914 and HP 1915 have qualified for different NIVTs of Co-ordinated Trials. HP 1894 (PBW 343/HP 1761// HW 2045) occupied first rank in first top non-significant group of NIVT-1A (05-06) in NWPZ, and hence promoted to AVT (TS) Irr-2006-07. This entry also shows good promise against Yr I 9 virulence (46S 119). HP 1910 (Turaco/2* Borlaug 95) has been proved a very good line for uniformity and wide adaptability. 41 Cultures ranging from PS 830 to PS 876 conserve wide genetic base and diverse res-genes are under evaluation programme of various Common Varietal Trials (CVTs).
- Effect of seed treatment with Azatobactar and PSB culture on wheat.
The results of this year’s experimentation on seed treatment of wheat with P-culture and Azatobactor was of the conformity with the results of last year’s experimentation. Seed treatment with bio-fertilizers (PSB culture and Azatobactor seed treatment) in plots (T5) where half N and half Phosphate of recommended dose was applied, yielded @ 32.02 and 16.20 qts/ha respectively in conventional and zero-tilled wheat as compared to 34.19 and 18.82 qts/ha in plots where full dose of N and P was applied alone with Azatobactor and P-culture. This clearly indicates that application of these bio-fertilizers can compensate about 50% of recommended nitrogen as well as phosphatic chemical fertilizers, with only a marginal loss in yield but major gain in economy of conventional as well as zero-tilled wheat production. .
- Evaluation of suitable wheat varieties under conventional tillage and zero tillage condition.
This was also a 2nd year of testing for six recognized varieties of each group i.e; normal and late sown varietal group, where they were evaluated under conventional as well as zero tillage condition of sowing for knowing the suitability of recommended varieties of this zone.
Results of this year’s trial revealed that under conventional tillage condition in order of preference K 9107 (39.99) followed by HP 1731 (38.10) and HP 1761 (37.57) were at par and formed the higher yielding variety group while PBW 443 (37.49), HUW 234, HD 2824 (35.98) and HD 2733 (35.52) qts/ha formed the normal producing group.
Where as under zero tillage condition HP 1761 (40.44) followed by HUW 468 (39.54) and HUW 234 (39.08) formed the higher yielding varietal group while HP 1731 (38.63), NW 2036 (37.89) and HW 2045 (37.19) qts/ha formed the normal producing variety group.
- The promising culture, HP 1913 was promoted to AVT-1 (LS) irrigated condition in peninsular zone showing fair degree of resistance against black, brown and yellow rust.
- Four cultures viz., HP 1925, HP 1926, HP 1927 and HP 1928 were found promising deriving resistance gene from diverse genetic background and are under evaluation in different NIVTs of coordinated trials.
- Effect of biofertilizers on growth, yield and quality of papaya
To standardize the biofertilizers and to know their effect on growth, yield and quality of papaya, an experiment was conducted with 100, 75 and 50% recommended dose of fertilizers alongwith biofertilizers, viz. VAM, PSB, Azospirillum and Azotobactor. Application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizers alongwith VAM (50g/plant)+PSB (25g/plant)+Azospirillum (50g/plant)+Azotobactor (50g/plant) significantly influenced the growth attributes and yield of papaya.
- Effect of micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of papaya
To know the effect of micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of papaya, an experiment was conducted with zinc sulphate (0.5%) and borax (0.1%) in one spray at four months after transplanting and two sprays at four and eight months after transplanting separately and in combination. Zinc sulphate 10 g and borax 5 g in combination were used as a soil application. Foliar application of zinc sulphate (0.5%) and borax (0.1%) during 4th and 8th month significantly influenced growth, yield attributes and yield of papaya.
- Six cultures, HP 1929, HP 1930, HP 1931, HP 1932, HP 1933 and HP 1934 deriving resistance genes from diverse genetic backgrounds were found promising and are under evaluation in different NIVTs of coordinated trials.
- A total of 16 papaya germplasm lines were evaluated for different horticultural traits. Minimum nodes at first flowering (22) and plant height at first flowering (39 cm) was observed in Pusa Nanha. Maximum height at first flowering (110 cm), stem girth (17 cm), number of fruits (45), weight of fruit (1.80 kg) and TSS (13.4%) was observed in Red Lady.
- Performance of new wheat genotypes at different dates of sowing under irrigated conditions
In this trial, five genotypes namely, HD 2967, HUW 612, HUW 16, DBW 39 and K 609 were tested against five checks for this zone at two different dates i.e., normal and late sowings. At both dates of sowing, genotype, HD 2967 preformed the best in terms of grain yield. This variety yielded significantly higher over new genotypes, HUW 612, HUW 616 and K 607, but was at par with DBW 39, PBW 343 and K 307 in normal sown condition, whereas in late sown conditions, it could yield significantly higher over the new genotypes and K 309 (C).
On the basis of pooled results from different centers of the zone, HD 2967 and DBW 39 were identified for release by CVRC in 2009 workshop.
- Six Cultures viz., HP 1935, HP 1936, HP 1937, HP 1938, HP 1939 and HP 1940 were found promising and are under evaluation in different NIVTs of coordinated trials.
- Following cultures showing resistance to foliar blight and orange rust are under testing in common varietal trials (CVTs ) viz.,
PS 1023-PS 1053 (thirteen cultures)
PS 1039- PS 1043 (five cultures)
CVT 5 A
PS 1044- PS 1046 (three cultures)
PS 1036 – PS 1038 (three cultures)
Under the research programme B-30: Line-Tester analysis of chewing tobacco to evolve superior varieties for yield and quality, 12 entries were evaluated. Entry no. 12 (PS14/Vaishali Special) yielded highest in terms of 1st grade leaf and total cured leaf yield (3.25 and 8.05 Kg per plot respectively) as compared to the check (PT- 76) (2.5 and 6.02 Kg per plot respectively)
- Under AICRP on Rustica tobacco, the total cured leaf yield for LR 61 (2621.5 Kg/ha.) was significantly higher then the check variety, R-21 (2118.05 Kg/ha.). LR-61 was the only entry which yielded higher than check at Pusa (Bihar)
- IARI Outreach Programme
With a view to popularize IARI wheat varieties among farmers, under the IARI Outreach Programme on “Strengthening of Wheat Programme in Eastern India”, eight demonstrations of four timely sown varieties (HD 2733, HD2824, CBW 38 and PBW 343) and four late sown varieties (HP 1744, WR 544, HD 2985, and PBW 373) were laid out in Samastipur, Vaishali and Muzaffarpur districts of Bihar. In addition, 25 demonstrations of wheat varieties were also laid out in the villages around KVK, Pratapgarh; KVK, Kaushambi; KVK, Ghazipur and KVK, Sonbhadra in Eastern Uttar Pradesh and in villages around Koderma and Hazaribagh in Jharkhand. The response of farmers was very encouraging.
- Ten nurseries, 11 station trials and 14 trials under All India Coordinated Wheat Improvement Project were conducted.
- Eleven cultures viz, HP 1941-HP 1951 in different NIVTs and two cultures viz., HP 1939 and HP 1940 in AVTs for different zones were found promising and are under evaluation.
- Papaya Improvement
Sixteen papaya germplasm were evaluated for yield, quality and tolerance/ resistance to ring spot virus disease. The lowest height (24 cm), node (18) and girth (18 cm) at first flowering was observed in Pusa Nanha whereas the highest height (99 cm) in Pune Selection-1 node (34) in Pune Selection-3 and girth (30.5 cm) was found in Pune Selection-1, at first flowering. Maximum number of fruit (42) was found in Pune Selection-1 and minimum (15) in Surya. The highest fruit weight (2.600 kg) and yield per plant (58.0 kg) was observed in Pune Selection-2. The highest T.S.S (12.2%) was found in Surya whereas the minimum (10.4%) in Pusa Dwarf. Pune Selection- 1, Pune Selection-2 and Pune Selection- 3 showed tolerance to the rings spot virus disease in first year trial whereas the highest infection was noticed in Surya.
- Seed and Planting Material Production
During the year station produced 24.0 kg seed and 15000 seedlings of papaya cv. Pusa Dwarf. Station also developed 5000 mango grafted plants of the cvs. Pusa Arunima, Amrapali, Mallika and Maldah and 2000 air layered litchi plants of the cvs. Shahi and China.
- Seed Production
A total of 2652.48 Q of quality seed was produced at the station out of which 30.785 Q was nucleus seed, 968.37 Q was breeder seed, 1653.325 Q of truthfully labelled (TL) seed (including vegetable seeds) of open pollinated varieties and hybrids. The major crops were wheat, paddy, maize, tobacco and pigeonpea.
- Yield evaluation of maize hybrids in different seasons at this location.
Five Vivek hybrids of maize recommended for this location was evaluated in all the three seasons against common local hybrids of maize at this location.
During spring, 2011 five Vivek hybrids were evaluated for grain yield production and duration of crop maturity against two local hybrids Shaktiman-1 and Shaktiman- 3. All the Vivek hybrids physiologically matured between 90-95 days and produced significantly higher yield except VQPM-9 than local hybrids Shaktiman-1 and Shaktiman-3. Significantly highest yield of 104 q/ha were produced by Vivek hybrids 25 and lowest yield of 71.62 q/ha was obtained by Shaktiman-3 which took about 120 days for its maturity.
During Kharif season though the yield level was uniformly lower as compared to spring season but the trend of grain yield production was similar where significantly highest yield of 45.24 q/ha was obtained with Vivek hybrids- 25 followed by Vivek hybrid- 43, Vivek hybrids 21 and Vivek hybrids-17 and lowest yield was obtained with Shaktiman-1 (36.59 q/ha). The difference in yields of above four varieties was non significant statistically and other four lower producing varieties were non significant among themselves.
During Rabi of the maize crops both in maize- potato inter culture trial and yield evaluation trial were not harvested so the trials result are not given here.
- Crop Protection
- Plant Pathology
Artificial inoculation was carried out in pathological nurseries at IARI Regional Station with inoculums of both brown rust and foliar blight pathogen and disease severity of 80S was seen in case of brown rust and disease rating of 67 was seen in foliar blight on susceptible cultivar Agra Local. Survey for rust disease was done in nearby villages and only brown rust was observed at all the places with varying degree of severity. Yellow rust which is rare rust in this area was observed with 10S severity on variety PBW 343 at the station. A trial on chemical control of foliar blight was carried out on susceptible variety DBW 14 and seed treatment with Vitavax Power @2.5gm/kg seed gave best results.
Infestation of a new insect was observed in the experimental area of I.A.R.I, Pusa Bihar in December, 2011 in four bread wheat varieties (Fig.1a). The adult insect was feeding on leaves on the crop and the leaf was damaged (Fig.1b). The insect was identified as Meloe violaceus Marshall by Insect Identification Service of the Division of Entomology, I.A.R.I, New Delhi. Meloe violaceus, the violet oil beetle is a species of oil beetle, belonging to the family Meloidae of the order Coleoptera. This is the first report of Meloe violaceus, the violet oil beetle on Wheat from India.