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AG 509 AGRONOMY OF FODDER AND PASTURE CROPS                                                                               (3L+1P) III

Objective
  To teach the crop husbandry, conservation and utilization of different fodder crops, pastures and tree-forage crop-based systems

Theory

UNIT I
  Introduction, origin, history, distribution, adaptation, classification, climate, soil, varieties, water, weed management and nutrient requirement of important cultivated fodder crops like maize, pearlmillet, teosinte, cluster bean, cowpea, oats, barley, berseem, senji, lucerne etc.

UNIT II
  Introduction, origin, history, distribution, adaptation, classification, climate, soil, varieties, water, weed management and nutrient requirement of important forage crops/grasses/ legumes, like, napier and hybrid napier grass, guinea grass, Lasiuras, buffel grass, stylo etc.

UNIT III
  Anti-quality factors of important fodder crops, forage grasses and legumes. Principles and methods of hay and silage making; chemical and biochemical changes, nutrient losses and factors affecting quality of hay and silage; use of physical and chemical enrichments and biological methods for improving nutrition; value addition of poor quality fodder.

UNIT IV
  Seed production of important fodder, forage and pasture crops/ grasses/ legumes.

UNIT V
  Natural grasslands of India. Establishment of pastures and their management with special reference to weed control and fertilization including micronutrients important to animals, defoliation and its effects, regeneration of infested pastures.

UNIT VI
  Agrostolgy and agroforestry systems – definition, classification and importance. Crop production technology in agroforestry and agrostology system; silvipastoral system. Wasteland development
     - selection of species, planting methods and problems of seed germination in agro-forestry systems. Lopping and coppicing in agroforestry systems.

Practicals
  Practical training of farm operations in raising fodder crops and canopy measurement. Yield and quality estimation, viz. crude protein, NDF, ADF, lignin, silica, cellulose etc. of various fodder and forage crops. Anti-quality components like HCN in sorghum and such factors in other crops. Hay and silage making, and economics of their preparation. Identification of seeds and plants of common grasses, legumes and trees of  economic importance with reference to agro-forestry. Methods of propagation/planting of grasses, trees in silvipastoral system. Fertilizer application in strip and silvi-pastoral systems. Economics of agroforestry systems. Visit to IGFRI / NRCAF, Jhansi.

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