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AG 511 / AP 511 CROP ECOLOGY AND AGROMETEOROLOGY                                                                               (3L+1P) III

Objective
  To impart knowledge about crop ecology and agrometeorology

Theory

UNIT I
  Concept of crop ecology, ecosystem characteristics, energy flow in ecosystem, succession and climax concept, adaptation of crops, agro-ecological regions.

UNIT II
  Agrometeorology – aims, scope and development in relation to environment. Historical aspects of meteorology / climatology.

UNIT III
  Physiological response of crop plants to weather variables (light, temperature, CO2, moisture and solar radiation). Atmospheric pollution and its effect on climate. Global climate change and its impact on agriculture.

UNIT IV
  Competition in crop plants, environmental manipulation through agronomic practices, agro-climatic indices. Improvement of unproductive lands through crop selection and management.

UNIT V
  Stress and strain terminology; nature of  stress injury and resistance, causes of  stress. Low temperature stress - freezing injury and resistance in plants, chilling injury and resistance in plants, practical ways to overcome the effect of low temperature stress. High temperature or heat stress - meaning of heat stress, heat injury and resistance in plants, practical ways to overcome the effect of heat stress through soil and crop manipulations.

UNIT VI
  Environmental pollution: air, soil and water pollution, and their effect on crop growth and quality of produce; ways and means to prevent environmental pollution.

UNIT VII
  Monsoons – their origin and characteristics. Weather hazards and their mitigation. Artificial rain making. Weather forecasting in India – short, medium and long range. Remote sensing – aerospace science and weather forecasting. Benefits of weather services to agriculture.

Practicals
  Visit to agro-meteorological observatory to record sun-shine hours, wind velocity, wind direction, relative humidity, soil and air temperature, evaporation, precipitation and atmospheric pressure. Measurement of solar radiation outside and within plant canopy, soil and canopy temperature. Measurement/estimation of evapo-transpiration by various methods. Measurement/estimation of soil water balance. Rainfall variability analysis. Agro-climatic indices - determination of heat- unit / photo-thermal units requirement. Remote sensing and familiarization with agro-advisory service bulletins. Study of weather reports, working principle of automatic weather station.

Suggested Readings