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AP 501 BASIC CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS- II                                                                                 (3L+1P) II

Objective
  To impart knowledge on the modern concepts of physics and physics laws.

Theory

UNIT I
  Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism, atomic structure, avogadro hypothesis and molecules, atomic and molecular weights, atomic sizes, quantum mechanics: uncertainty principle, De-Broglie hypothesis, wave function, Eigen state, Schrodinger equation.

UNIT II
  Spectroscopy: atomic and molecular spectra, cathode rays; positive rays; radio activity; alpha-, beta-, and gamma- rays; detection and measurement of radiation; Rutherford’s theory of the scattering of alpha particles; X-rays, nature and properties; scattering of X-rays by atoms; diffraction of X-rays and Bragg’s law; characteristic X-ray spectra.

UNIT III
  Planck’s quantum theory of thermal radiation; quantum theory and photo-electric effect; elements of special theory of relativity, atomic nucleus and its constitution, angular momentum of the nucleus; nuclear transmutation of elements; proton-neutron hypothesis; cosmic rays; elementary particles.

UNIT IV
  Natural radioactivity, types of radiations, their interaction with matter and decay; isotopes; isotopic masses and abundances; mass spectrograph and mass spectrometers; stable isotopes; atomic masses, packing fractions and binding energies, theory of radioactive disintegration; half life and mean life; Mass spectrometer.

UNIT V
  Nuclear fission, fusion, nuclear reactions, neutron moderation, nuclear energy, atomic power; production of artificial isotope.

UNIT VI
  Physical principles of radiation detection; types of radiation detectors; efficiency of detectors; uses of radiation detectors, Elements of radioactive sources, handling, radiation protection and cardinal principles of radiation safety.

Practicals
  Safe Handling of radioisotopes, Characteristics of GM counters, half life of a radioactive isotope, dead time of GM counter, Estimation of linear absorption coefficient of a material, Characteristics and Calibration of scintillation counter using CS-137 source, Determination of strength of gamma sources using multichannel analyzer

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