DESCRIPTION OF COURSES

Close

AP 506 PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICAL TECHNIQUES IN AGRICULTURE                                                   (3L+1P) III

Objective
  To educate about different optical, electrical, colorimetric and nuclear techniques used in agriculture.

Theory

UNIT I
  Physical principles of measurement of relationships, direct and indirect measurements, scale of operation, laboratory, field and regional scales, specificity of techniques to characterize objects, resolution, limitations and relative advantages.

UNIT II
  Optical microscope, reflection, polarized microscopes, Colorimetric techniques, single and double beam instruments, reflection, transmission and absorption in relation to the properties of the object, UV and Visible sphectrophotometry, applications.

UNIT III
  Sensors and transducers, principles of operation of field-based instruments like leaf area meter, canopy analyzer, quantum sensor, spectroradiometer, laser land leveller etc., infrared thermometry, principles, emissivity, infrared spectroscopy, characteristics of agricultural materials.

UNIT IV
  X-rays, crystal structure, applications, clay mineralogy, cotton fibres, small angle scattering, electron microscopy, electron optics, aberrations, contrast and image formation, specimen preparation techniques, transmission and scanning electron microscopy.

UNIT V
  Morphological characterization of viruses, macromolecules, clay minerals and other material, atomic absorption spectroscopy, principle of operation, detection limits and sensitivity, polarography, applications.

UNIT VI
  Nuclear techniques, detection and measurement of charged particles, types of detectors, counting systems, radiation monitoring instruments, radiation hazard evaluation and protection, tracer methodology, isotopes and their applications in different branches of agriculture, seed irradiation, γ chamber and γ irradiation for genetic variability, agricultural produce preservation, mass spectrometer, principle and applications.

Practicals
  Photoelectric effect and measurements, Geiger-Muller counter: quenching time, thickness measurement of thin films/foils/paper sheets, half-life determination, tracer applications of artificial radio nuclides, multi-channel analyzer, neutron moisture meter, use of NMR spectrometer, seed irradiation with gamma rays, radiocarbon dating, hands on exposure to radiation safety

Suggested Readings