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AP 530/WST 530 FUNDAMENTALS OF METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY                                     (3L+1P)

Objective
  To impart theoretical and practical knowledge about basic physical processes in the atmosphere with an aim to apply in agriculture.

Theory

UNIT I
  Atmosphere and its constituents, weather and climate; meteorology and climatology, meteorological elements, instruments for measurement of meteorological elements, meteorological observatory, weather satellites, websites of meteorological organizations – IMD, NCMRWF, IITM, WMO.

UNIT II
  Sun and earth; seasons, solstices and equinoxes, solar radiation and laws of radiation, solar constant; radiation receipt on earth surface, heat balance of the earth and atmosphere.

UNIT III
  Variation of pressure and temperatures with height; hydrostatic equation, atmospheric moisture; vapour pressure; saturation deficit; psychometric equations, lapse rates, atmospheric stability, tephigram, potential temperature.

UNIT IV
  Climatic controls, seasonal distribution of climatologically elements (radiation, temperature, pressure and precipitation) over latitudes.

UNIT V
  Clouds and their classification, precipitation processes; artificial rain making, thunderstorms and dust storms; haze, mist, fog and dew, introduction to evapotranspiration,

UNIT VI
  Pressure gradient; coriolis force; cyclones and anti-cyclones, local wind systems; land and sea breeze circulation, mountain and valley winds, air masses and fronts,

UNIT VII
  Weather charts, forecasting methods – short, medium and long range forecasting techniques, numerical weather prediction.

UNIT VIII
  Climatic classification: Koppen and Thornthwaite systems, agroclimatic indices, agroclimatic zones; different agro ecological zones for India,

UNIT IX
  Climatology of India; monsoons, rainfall variability; El Nino, La Nina and ENSO, disastrous weather events in different regions, drought climatology and drought indices, climate change and global warming, impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems.

Practicals
  Meteorological observatory, meteorological instruments, recording of weather parameters, daily, weekly and monthly means, meteorological websites, standard meteorological weeks and Julian days, classification of clouds, climatic normal, climatic chart, low and high pressure systems.

Suggested Readings