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ENT 512  NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CROP PROTECTION                                                                                 (2 L+ 1P) II
(Multi-disciplinary : Agric. Chemicals, Plant Pathology, Nematology, Microbiology)

Objective
To enable students to acquire expertise and skill to develop agrochemical formulations with nanoparticles and to acquaint them with nanotechnology

Thoery

UNIT I
Introduction: History of  nanotechnology – Origin, fundamental concepts, and molecular perspective, Nanomaterials: formation, stability and quality. Application of nanotechnology in agricultural chemicals, bio-pesticides, carriers, surfactants, formulation auxiliaries plant nutrients and related materials

UNIT II
Effect of bioactive nano-materials on insect pests and beneficial insects. (2 Lectures, Entomology)

UNIT III
Different types of nano-compounds and their use in the management of plant disease incited by pathogenic fungi , bacteria and viruses with special reference to copper, sulfur etc, Interaction of bioactive nano- materials on plant pathogens including fungi, bacteria, virus etc (3 lectures, Plant Pathology).

UNIT IV
Nematodes: Plant pathogenic and entomopathogenic nematodes, life cycle, Efficacy of nano chemicals against nematodes, Biotoxins from Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus. Identification and quantification of biotoxins effective in nano-doses. (3 lectures, Nematology).

UNIT V
Microbes: Microbes of  agricultural importance. Life cycle: genesis, growth, reproduction, identification and quantification. Nanotechnological application in microbilogy (3 lectures, Microbiology)

UNIT VI
Nanomaterials: size, characterization, formation and stability. Tools for identification and quantitation: Particle size analyzers, nanosizers, scanning microscopes of  different types. Development of nano-materials: Bottom-up and top-down approach: Chemical synthesis, sol-gel and emulsion polymerization techniques, wet milling, nano-milling. Stabilization of nanoparticles. Regulations and quality control.

Practicals
Identifications, and quantification of agricultural chemicals in conventional and nano formulations, Size determination, Quality of  nano-formulations: Cold test, emulsion stability test, and suspensibility tests.

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