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ENT 608 ADVANCES IN INSECT PHYSIOLOGY                                                                                 (2L+1P) II

Objective
To impart knowledge to the students on detailed physiology of various secretory and excretory systems, moulting process, chitin synthesis, physiology of digestion, transmission of nerve impulses, nutrition of insects, pheromones and mechanism of polymorphism, diapause, migration, etc.

Theory

UNIT I
Ultra structure, physiology and biochemistry of insect cuticle and moulting process. Biosynthesis of chitin, chitin-protein interactions in various cuticles, and types of sclerotization.

UNIT II
Digestive enzymes, digestive physiology in phytophagous insects, wood boring and wool feeding insects, efficiency of digestion and absorption, role of endosymbionts in insect nutrition, nutritional effects on growth and development, physiology of excretion and osmoregulation, water conservation mechanisms. Evolution of digestive system with food habits and insect habitats.

UNIT III
Detailed physiology of nervous system ultra structure of nerve and glial cell. Advances in physiology of neuro-endocrine system. Adaptation of insects to various ecosystem transmission of nerve impulses, neurotransmitters and modulators. Production of receptor potentials in different types of sensilla, pheromones and other semiochemicals in insect life, toxins and defense mechanisms.

UNIT IV
Endocrine system and insect hormones, physiology of  insect growth and development- metamorphosis, polyphenism and diapause. Energetics of muscle contractions. Hormonal control of flight and migration.

Practicals
To estimate chitin in insect cuticle; study digestive enzymes in phytophagous, mycetomes; to understand physiology of  nervous system, endocrine system, defence mechanisms, diapause, polyphenism, frequency of wing beat, abrassion of wax layer of cuticle, food utilization indices, feeding stimulants, dissection of insect brain and associated structures, study of neurosecretary cells, response of heart beat towards test solutions, etc.

Suggested Readings