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ES 604/SSAC604 SOIL ORGANIC MATTER                                                                                 (3L+0P) II

Objective
To teach basic biochemistry of soil organic matter, its composition, fractionation and reactions in soil and its significance in sustenance of soil fertility and environmental quality

Theory

UNIT I
Carbon cycle in nature; carbon stocks of the world and Indian soils; pools, composition, and distribution of organic matter in soil

UNIT II
Biochemistry of  the humus formation - theories and pathways for humus synthesis in soil; biochemistry of transformation of N, P and S; organo-metallic interactions and role of chelation in bioavailability of nutrients and pollutant elements

UNIT III
Characterization of humic substances: Extraction, fractionation and purification; elemental analysis, reactive functional groups of humic substances, ion exchange properties, other colloidal properties; adsorption of organic compounds by clays and role of organic substances in pedogenesis and soil aggregation

UNIT IV
Soil organic matter (SOM) management in tropics; role of crop residues, tillage, land use and crops and cropping systems in SOM management; carbon sequestration - concept, practices and potential of the world and Indian crop lands; soil carbon stocks – issues and priorities for mitigation and sequestration of organic and inorganic carbon in soils,

UNIT V
Environmental issues related to SOM - Green house effect and global warming related to emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O; organic matter turnover and stabilization in soil - concepts and implications for soil fertility, environmental loads and climate change; soil organic matter dynamics in relation to soil biodiversity in terms of both flora and fauna; carbon transfer model; clean development mechanism – carbon trading; changes in organic carbon turnover in soils - simulation models - Rothamsted Carbon, Century Carbon, Infocrop and DNDC models.

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