DESCRIPTION OF COURSES

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ES 612 CROP GEOGRAPHY AND ECOLOGY                                                                                 (3L+0P) II

Objective
To impart knowledge about the geographical distribution of crops, their interactions with physical and biological environments and adaptation to diverse agro-climatic conditions

Theory

UNIT I
General principles and scope of crop geography; physical, biological and social factors determining crop distribution; classification and characteristics of edaphic, climatic and biotic environments; agro-climatic and agro-ecological zones; bioclimatic parameters.

UNIT II
Crop domestication and their centers of origin; geographic distribution of crops; agro-ecosystem classification and its structure and function; crop response to diverse environmental stresses e.g. temperature, light, excess and deficit water; properties of agro-ecosystem, their efficiency and interaction between biotic and abiotic components; food chain and food webs; trophic levels and energy flow in various agro-ecosystems.

UNIT III
Thermal and photo-thermal units; relationship and manipulation of developmental physiology of crops; ecological implication of different photosynthetic systems of crop plants; physiological limits of crop yield; net primary productivity; ecological approaches to world food Problems; ecological optimum and efficiency of different crops; resource utilization efficiency of different crops under diverse environments.

UNIT IV
Crop adaptation to diverse environments through natural selection and biological modification; natural biological and anthropogenic adaptation of crops to various abiotic stresses; ecotype concept of crop adaptation and distribution; agricultural region-concept and technique; water, carbon, mineral nutrient and energy dynamics in ecosystems and crop communities.

UNIT V
Ecological analysis of traditional and modern agriculture on the basis of productivity, stability, diversity and sustainability; Agricultural systems of the world and India; surveys and models in crop geography; land use pattern and land use change; ecological/sustainable agricultural production systems.

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