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GP 500 PRINCIPLES OF GENETICS                                                                                 (3L+2P) I

Objective
The aim of this course is to understand basic concepts of genetics and to develop analytical, quantitative and problem-solving skills in classical and molecular genetics.

Theory

UNIT I
History of Genetics; Mitosis & Meiosis, Pre-Mendelian concepts of inheritance, Mendel’s laws; Discussion of Mendel’s paper; Probability, Chromosomal theory of inheritance. Multiple alleles, Sex-linkage, Linkage Detection, Linkage estimation by various methods in test crosses, intercrosses; recombination and genetic mapping in eukaryotes -classical to modern, Somatic cell genetics.

UNIT II
Structural and numerical changes in chromosomes; Nature, structure and replication of the genetic material; Organization of DNA in chromosomes, Epigenetics. Genetic code; Protein biosynthesis,Genetic fine structure analysis, Allelic complementation, Split genes, Transposable genetic elements, Overlapping genes, Pseudogenes, Gene families and clusters.

UNIT III
Regulation of gene activity in prokaryotes; Molecular mechanisms of mutation, repair and suppression; Bacterial plasmids, insertion (IS) and transposable (Tn) elements; Gene expression & regulation in eukaryotes.

UNIT IV
DNA sequencing Gene cloning, genomic and cDNA libraries, PCR-based cloning, Nucleic acid hybridization and immuno-chemical detection; DNA restriction and modification, Anti-sense RNA, Gene silencing and ribozymes; Micro-RNAs (miRNAs). Genomics: Functional, structural & comparative, proteomics,metagenomics

UNIT V
Methods of studying polymorphism; Transgenic bacteria and bioethics; genetics of mitochondria and chloroplasts, Extra chromosomal inheritance. Eugenics, Genetic Disorders and Behavioural Genetics

UNIT VI
Population - Mendelian population – Random mating population - Frequencies of genes and genotypes-Causes of change: Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

Practicals
Laboratory exercises in probability and chi-square; Demonstration of genetic principles using laboratory organisms; Gene mapping using three point test cross; Tetrad analysis; Induction and detection of mutations, complementation. Study of chromosome aberrations, (deletions, inversion, translocations ); DNA extraction and PCR amplification - Electrophoresis – basic principles separation of DNA; Visit to transgenic glasshouse.

Suggested Readings