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GP 520 ELEMENTS OF PLANT BREEDING                                                                                 (3L+2P) II

Objectivs
To impart theoretical knowledge and practical skills about plant breeding objectives, modes of reproduction and genetic consequences, breeding methods for crop improvement.

Theory

UNIT I
History of Plant Breeding (Pre and post Mendelian era), Objectives of plant breeding, Characteristics improved by plant breeding. - Centres of Origin-biodiversity and its significance

UNIT II
Genetic basis of breeding self- and cross - pollinated crops, nature of variability, components of variation, heritability and genetic advance, genotype-environment interaction, general and specific combining ability, types of gene actions and implications in plant breeding; plant introduction and role of plant genetic resources in plant breeding. Self-incompatibility and male sterility in crop plants and their commercial exploitation.

UNIT III
Breeding self pollinated crops, Pure line theory; pure line selection and mass selection methods, line breeding, pedigree, bulk, backcross, single seed descent and multiline method.

UNIT IV
Breeding methods in cross pollinated crops, population breeding-mass selection and ear-to-row methods; S1 and S2 progeny testing, progeny selection schemes, recurrent selection schemes for intra and inter-population improvement and development of synthetics and composites.

UNIT V
Breeding methods in asexually/clonally propagated crops, clonal selection. Self-incompatibility and male sterility in crop plants and their commercial exploitation; concept of plant ideotype and its role in crop improvement. Special breeding techniques- Mutation breeding,polyploids. Hybrid breeding - genetical and physiological basis of heterosis and inbreeding, production of inbreds, breeding approaches for improvement of inbreds, predicting hybrid performance; seed production of hybrid and their parent varieties/inbreds.

UNIT VI
Cultivar development- testing, release and notification, maintenance breeding, Participatory Plant Breeding, Plant breeders’ rights and regulations for plant variety protection and farmers rights, DUS testing, Quality seeds-types and production. Parent selection. Combining ability and type of crosses. Biotechnology in crop improvement-An overview. Transgenic crops- current status and future prospects, integration of transgenics into breeding programmes. Molecular breeding-molecular markers (isozymes, RFLP, RAPD AFLP), mapping populations (RILs, NILs, DH, Backross), their merits and demerits, markers assisted selection

Practicals
Floral biology in self and cross pollinated species, selfing and crossing techniques. Selection methods in segregating populations and evaluation of breeding material. Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Estimation of heritability and genetic advance, maintenance of experimental records. Learning techniques in hybrid seed production using male-sterility in field crops.

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