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GP 521 BREEDING FIELD CROPS-I                                                                                 (2L+1P) I

Objectives
To provide insight into recent advances in improvement of cereals, pulses, oilseeds and fiber crop grown during Kharif Season using conventional and modern biotechnological approaches

Theory

UNIT I CEREALS
Rice: evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm – cytogenetics and genome relationship - breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, exploitation of heterosis and hybrid development: Breeding approaches-conventional and non conventional including MAS, emerging challenges at national and international level, Maintenance breeding, coordinated system of testing.
Maize: evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship - breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress resistance/tolerance - Heterosis breeding, Breeding approaches –conventional and non conventional including MAS, Emerging challenges at national and international level.
Pearl millet: evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship: breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress resistance/tolerance, exploitation of heterosis and hybrid development; Breeding approaches-conventional and non conventional including MAS, emerging challenges at national and international level.
Sorghum: evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship: breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, exploitation of heterosis and hybrid development; Breeding approaches- conventional and non conventional including MAS, emerging challenges at national and international level.

UNIT II PULSES
Pigenopea: Evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship, breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress etc. Protein quality improvement – conventional and modern plant breeding approaches conventional and non conventional including MAS, progress made - Breeding for anti nutritional factors; Progress in hybrid development, emerging challenges at national and international level.
Urd bean: evolution, cytogenetics and genome relationship, - breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress, Breeding approaches-conventional and non conventional including MAS, - interspecific crosses attempted and its implications, reasons for failure, ways of overcoming them – emerging challenges at national and international level.
Moong bean: evolution, cytogenetics and genome relationship, - breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress, Breeding approaches-conventional and non conventional including MAS, - interspecific crosses attempted and its implications, reasons for failure, ways of overcoming them – emerging challenges at national and international level.

UNIT III OILSEEDS
Soybean: evolution and distribution of species and forms wild relatives and germplasm - genetics
- cytogenetics and genome relationship; breeding objectives, utilization of wild relatives for yield and quality improvement, biotic and abiotic stress, Breeding approaches conventional and non conventional including MAS - Oil quality – characteristics in different oils emerging challenges at national and international level.

UNIT IV: FIBRE CROP
Cotton: evolution, breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress etc,Breeding,development and maintenance of male sterile lines, Hybrid development and seed production – Scenario of Bt cottons, evaluation procedures for Bt cotton.

UNIT V
Distinguishing features of popular released varieties in – Rice, maize, pearl millet, sorghum, pigeonpea, urd bean, moong bean, cotton and their application to DUS testing - Maintenance of seed purity - Nucleus and Breeder Seed Production.Maintenance Breeding and All India Co- ordinated System of testing and release of crop varieties and hybrids.

Practicals
Floral biology – emasculation - pollination techniques; Study of variation for yield and yield components - Trait based screening for stress resistance in important crops– Use of descriptors for cataloguing Germplasm maintenance; Using Standard Evaluation System (SES) and descriptors, Field and lab visit of the concerned crops

Suggested Readings