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GP 602 MUTAGENESIS                                                                                 (3L+2P) III

Objectives
To provide insight into mutations, mutagens & their mode of action,effects, screening and their utility and application in crop improvement. History of mutation and experimental mutagenesis- nature and classification of mutations: spontaneous mutations and induced mutations, micro and macro mutations, forward and reverse mutations,role of mutation in evolution, multi gene families.

UNIT II
Mutagens: Physical mutagens: properties and effect of ionizing radiations, RBE and LET, direct and indirect effects; Chemical mutagens- nature of action, classification, comparative evaluation of physical and chemical mutagens; Transposons as mutagens.

UNIT III
Application methodology of mutagens and modification of their action in cell; Mutation repair; Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency: Estimation and implications in mutation breeding, biological and environmental parameters influencing mutagenic efficiency. Genetic sieves in mutation induction. Screening techniques and selection procedures of induced mutations; test systems in M1 and subsequent generations.

UNIT IV
Crop improvement through induced mutagenesis; targeted gene replacement; gene silencing. Somaclonal variations. In vitro mutagenesis. Mutation in the organellar genome.

UNIT V
Use of mutagens in genomics, TILLING and Eco TILLING: Use of specific chemical mutagens in creating lesions associated with physical changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA and analysis of popymorphism for detection of SNPs, functional alleles etc.

UNIT VI
Mutation breeding in animals and microorganisms- scope and achievements. Mutational reconstruction of crop ideotype. Mutagens as carcinostatic agents. Environmental mutagenesis- bacteria, mammalian cell cultures, Drosophila; transgenics as environmental mutagen monitors. Comparative assessment of various types of mutations.

Practicals
Precautions of handling mutagens; Dosimetry - Studies of mutagenic agents: Radiation hazards- safety regulations and safe transportation, use and disposal of radioisotopes, gamma chamber, treating seeds with gamma rays, Chemical mutagens- learning hazards due to chemical mutagens - Treating plant propagules with physical and chemical mutagens - combined mutagenic treatments in M1 and subsequent generations in different crops – cereal, pulses, oilseeds, vegetatively propagated crops.

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