DESCRIPTION OF COURSES
GP 610 CROP CYTOGENETICS (2L+1P) II
To study crop evolution and cytogenetic approaches for crop improvement.
Origin and evolution of species; Centres of diversity/origin, diffused centres; domestication; Patterns of evolution and domestication-examples and case studies. Domestication and uniformity – Characteristics of early domestication and changes – Concept of gene pools and crop evolution; Selection and Genetic drift - Consequences.
Speciation and domestication – The process of speciation – Reproductive isolation barriers – Genetic differentiation during speciation –Hybridization - speciation and extinction.
Exploitation of natural variation – Early attempts to increase variation –Distant hybridization and introgression- Inter-specific, inter-generic hybridization, scope and limitations, techniques to overcome the limitations; Gene transfer into cultivated species, tools and techniques;Validation of transferred genes and their expression; Controlled introgressions.
Processes in crop evolution and stabilization of polyploids, cytogenetic and genetic stabilization; Genome organization – Transgenesis in crop evolution – Multifactorial genome – Intragenomic interaction – Intergenomic interaction – Genome introgression. Cytogenetic analysis of species relationships and evolution of wheat, rice, maize,sugarcane, Brassica, cotton, jute, tobacco, potato, tomato, pulse crops, forage crops and cucurbits.
Methods to study crop evolution - Contemporary Methods – Cytogenetic analysis – Allozyme variations and crop evolution – DNA markers, genome analysis and comparative genomics.
Evolutionary significance of polyploidy, Evolution of crop plants through ploidy manipulations; polyploids: methods of induction, use of autopolyploids;Haploidy-method of production and use; allopolyploids- synthesis of new crops; - Case studies – Cereals – Pulses – Oilseeds – vegetables, Fibre crops - Plantation crops – Forage crops – Tuber crops – Medicinal Plants.
Patent Information Search; Patent Drafting; Opinion on Patentability; Patent Infringement