DESCRIPTION OF COURSES

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GP 610 CROP CYTOGENETICS                                                                                 (2L+1P) II

Objective
To study crop evolution and cytogenetic approaches for crop improvement.

Theory

UNIT I
Origin and evolution of species; Centres of diversity/origin, diffused centres; domestication; Patterns of evolution and domestication-examples and case studies. Domestication and uniformity – Characteristics of early domestication and changes – Concept of gene pools and crop evolution; Selection and Genetic drift - Consequences.

UNIT II
Speciation and domestication – The process of speciation – Reproductive isolation barriers – Genetic differentiation during speciation –Hybridization - speciation and extinction.

UNIT III
Exploitation of natural variation – Early attempts to increase variation –Distant hybridization and introgression- Inter-specific, inter-generic hybridization, scope and limitations, techniques to overcome the limitations; Gene transfer into cultivated species, tools and techniques;Validation of transferred genes and their expression; Controlled introgressions.

UNIT IV
Processes in crop evolution and stabilization of polyploids, cytogenetic and genetic stabilization; Genome organization – Transgenesis in crop evolution – Multifactorial genome – Intragenomic interaction – Intergenomic interaction – Genome introgression. Cytogenetic analysis of species relationships and evolution of wheat, rice, maize,sugarcane, Brassica, cotton, jute, tobacco, potato, tomato, pulse crops, forage crops and cucurbits.

UNIT V
Methods to study crop evolution - Contemporary Methods – Cytogenetic analysis – Allozyme variations and crop evolution – DNA markers, genome analysis and comparative genomics.

UNIT VI
Evolutionary significance of polyploidy, Evolution of crop plants through ploidy manipulations; polyploids: methods of induction, use of autopolyploids;Haploidy-method of production and use; allopolyploids- synthesis of new crops; - Case studies – Cereals – Pulses – Oilseeds – vegetables, Fibre crops - Plantation crops – Forage crops – Tuber crops – Medicinal Plants.

Practicals
Patent Information Search; Patent Drafting; Opinion on Patentability; Patent Infringement

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