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MB 601 PHYSIOLOGY OF ALGAE                                                                                 (3L+1P) II

Objective
To familiarize the students with the concepts of physiology of algae

Theory

UNIT I
Growth and synchrony, Factors regulating algal growth, Adaptive responses of cyanobacteria to abiotic stress, Circadian rhythms and their relevance in cyanobacteria, Toxin production by algae including cyanobacteria, Types/modes of their action and biosynthesis, Role of environmental/ nutritional factors.

UNIT II
Respiration: Energetics, Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Oxidative phosphorylation, Alternative pathways, Cyanobacterial respiration.

UNIT III
Photosynthesis : Light reactions, Photosystem I and II, Dark reactions, Biochemistry of carbon dioxide metabolism, Photorespiration,Chloroplast origin and evolution, Phycobilisome and phyco- biliprotein structures, Carotenoids in cyanobacteria, Biosynthesis of  cyanobacterial hemes, Chlorophylls and phycobilins, Chromatic adaptation.

UNIT IV
Cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation-an overview, Nitrogenase enzyme, its nature and properties, Heterocyst, its structure and function, Nitrogen fixation in non-heterocystous cyanobacteria, Assimilation of combined nitrogen, Amino acid metabolism, Environmental and nutritional factors influencing nitrogen fixation, Global regulatory mechanisms in nitrogen metabolism, Physiology of symbiotic associations of cyanobacteria, Hydrogen evolution, Microalgae as biofuel.

Practicals
Media preparation for microalgae and isolation, Biomass estimation, Pigment profile, Cellular constituents (Total soluble proteins and carbohydrates),Measurement of nitrogen fixation as acetylene reduction activity, Hydrogen production using Gas Chromatograph, Nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity in cyanobacteria, Estimation of extracellular ammonia, Cell count measurement, Soil chlorophyll estimation through spectrophotometric analysis, Soil DNA extraction and analyses from inoculated soil microcosm/pot experiment, Inhibition assays for cyanobacterial toxins, Soil organic matter and nitrogen analysis

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