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MB 603 BACTERIAL PHYSIOLOGY-I                                                                                 (3L+1P) II

Objective
To teach the basic concepts of physiological processes in microorganiams-microbial growth requirement and pathways of energy generation

Theory

UNIT I
Introduction to Microbial Physiology, Microbial nutrition and Nutritional types, Metabolic diversity, Photoautotrophs, Photoheterotrophs, Chemoautotrophs, Chemoheterotrophs, Photolithoautotrophs, Chemolithoautotrophs, Photoorganoheterotrophs, Chemo- organoheterotrophs, Auxotrophs.

UNIT II
Microbial growth, Requirements for growth- Physical: Temperature, pH, Osmotic pressure, Organic growth factors, Bacterial division, Bacterial growth kinetics, Generation time, Mathematical expression of growth, Phases of growth, Balanced and unbalanced growth, Monoauxic growth and Diauxic growth, Energetics of growth, Batch culture, Synchronous growth, Continuous growth, Chemostat and Turbidostat, Growth characteristics, Measurement of microbial growth: Plate counts, Filtration, The Most Probable Number (MPN) method, Direct microscopic count, Indirect methods to check growth: Turbidity, Metabolic activity, Dry weight measurement, Growth yield and its significance.

UNIT III
Energy yielding pathways in microorganisms, Aerobic respiration: Glycolysis, Substrate level phosphorylation, Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation , Alternatives to glycolysis: Hexose mono-phosphate pathway (HMP), Entner – Doudoroff  Pathway (ED pathway), Tricaboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and other mechanisms, Chemiosmotic mechanism of ATP generation, Obligate anaerobes, Aerotolerant anaerobes, Integration of metabolism, Catabolism of other kind of organic substrates, Anaerobic respiration, Dissimilatory and assimilatory reductions, Types of fermentation, Fermentation balances.

UNIT IV
Microbial photosynthesis, Diversity, Chlorophylls and bacterio- chlorophylls, Accessory pigments, Light-dependent reactions and light independent reactions, Carbon dioxide assimilation in prokaryotes, Bacteriorhodopsin and Halorhodopsin and their significance, Transport of nutrients into cell.

Practicals
Designing of media to support the growth of different nutritional groups of bacteria, Demonstration of  specialized media for selection and differentiation of  microorganisms, Diverse growth temperature and pH requirements of microorganisms, Cultivation of anaerobic microorganisms, Atmospheric oxygen requirements of microorganisms, Determination of viable and total number of cells, Preservation techniques, Diauxic growth.

Suggested Readings