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MB 604 BACTERIAL PHYSIOLOGY-II                                                                                 (2L+1P) III

Objective
To teach the basic concepts of anabolic and catabolic reactions related to bacterial metabolism

Theory

UNIT I
Enzymes and chemical reactions, Enzyme specificity and efficiency, Naming enzymes, Classification, Enzyme components, The mechanism of enzymatic action, Factors influencing enzymatic activity: Temperature, pH, substrate concentration, Inhibitors, Feedback inhibition, Ribozymes, Coenzymes.

UNIT II
Catabolic and anabolic reactions, Collision theory, Cell wall and its biosynthesis- Types, Peptidoglycan, Gram positive cell wall, Gram negative cell wall, Archael cell wall, Polysachharide biosynthesis, Lipid biosynthesis, Biosynthesis of nitrogenous compounds- Amino acid and proteins, Purine and pyrimidines, Nucleic acids.

UNIT III
Protein break down by microorganisms, Deamination, Transamination, Assimilation of complex carbohydrates- Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Starch, Pectin and Chitin, Nitrogen fixing micro- organisms, Requirements of nitrogen fixation, Mechanism of nitrogen fixation , Nitrogenase enzyme, Biochemistry of hydrogenase enzyme and hydrogen assimilation.

UNIT IV
Secondary metabolism, Primary and secondary metabolites and their significance, Physiological response of  microorganisms to salinity, Alkalinity, UV, Drought and heavy metals, Adaptive mechanisms employed to cope with stress, Pesticides: Types, Resistance to microbes and metabolism, Residual effects of pesticides.

Practicals
Study on enzyme kinetics, Tolerance and degradation of pesticides by microorganisms, Effect of salinity and alkalinity on microorganisms, Nitrogenase activity and nodulation pattern, Estimation of total soluble proteins, Protein profile through Poly-acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Ammonia liberation from nitrogenous compound and enzymatic conversion of ammonia to nitrates by microorganisms, Reduction of nitrates to nitrogen gas, Reducing sugars estimation, Separation of amino acids by TLC, Estimation of  nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity in prokaryotes.

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