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PP 621/ HORT 621 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS                                     (3+2)III

Objective

To teach about the growth and development processes of horticultural crops, knowledge of basic physiological and molecular processes affecting growth, flowering and production of  quality produce.

Theory

UNIT I
  Defining growth and development; physical and physiological aspects of growth, germination, juvenility, root and leaf differentiation,

UNIT II
  Flowering, fruit set and development, fruit maturity and ripening, abscission, senescence of horticultural crops: Factors influencing flowering, photoperiodism vernalisation, effect of temperature, heat units, thermoperiodism.

UNIT III
  Biosynthesis of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, brassino-steroids, synthetic growth inhibitors, morphactins, methyl jasmonates, salicylic acid, polyamines, etc. their mode of action.

UNIT IV
  Role of  plant growth promoters and inhibitors on physiological processes like seed and bud dormancy, fruit thinning, fruit drop, sex expression modification in cucurbits and induction of parthenocarpy; plastochrom,

UNIT V
  Water relations, stress physiology in relation to drought, temperature and salts, quality improvement in fruits, vegetables and flowers.

Practicals
  Visit to Physiology laboratory; Testing of seed germination and breaking dormancy in seeds; Study on fruit set and fruit growth. Estimation of tissue macro- and micro-nutrients; Estimation of enzymes; Estimation of chlorophyll, carotenoids and other pigments. Bioassay of plant hormones; Use of HPLC and GC for estimation of phyto-hormones; Application of GRs in fruit thinning and control of fruit drop; sex expression and induction of parthenocarpy in horticultural crops; Use of PGRs in ornamental crops. Light manipulation in protected cultivation.

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