DESCRIPTION OF COURSES

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SSAC 508 MANURES, FERTILIZERS AND BIOFERTILIZERS                                                                               (3L+2P) II

Objective
To provide a holistic knowledge to the students on the potential and sustainable use of renewable and non-renewable organic, biological and chemical sources of nutrients; chemistry, technology and usage of chemical fertilizers; and recent developments in the field including customized and fortified fertilizers and relevance of the Fertilizer Control Order.

Theory

UNIT I
Role of manures, fertilizers and biofertilizers in sustainable agriculture; fertilizer production, consumption and agricultural production in India and future projections.

UNIT II
Bulky organic manures, farmyard manure, rural and urban composts: their preparation, preservation and mechanisms of decomposition with variable C/N ratio materials; green manures; enriched and concentrated manures - their preparation, preservation and usages.

UNIT III
Bio-fertilizers - definition, classification and their nutrient potential, mechanisms, production, usage and constraints; strategies for popularizing biofertilizers in India.

UNIT 1V
Agricultural and industrial wastes and effluents as a source of the plant nutrients, problems and constraints; impact on use of sewage and sludge on soil physical, chemical and biological properties.

UNIT V
Manufacture, chemistry, characteristics and use of different nitrogenous, phosphatic and potassic fertilizers; physical and chemical properties of different fertilizers influencing their storage, transport, handling and utilization by crops.

UNIT VI
NP/ NPK complex and customized fertilizers; solid and liquid fertilizers suitable for fertigation, their merits and demerits; recent developments in secondary and micronutrient fertilizers and their usage.

UNIT VII
Approaches for increasing fertilizer use efficiencies - site-specific nutrient management; use of low-grade rock phosphates on different types of soils; long-term effects of manures and fertilizers on soil fertility and productivity.

UNIT VIII
Quality control of fertilizers and Fertiliser (Control) Order Act.

Practicals
Determination of moisture in manures and fertilizers, and determination of biuret in urea; mineralization rates of manures; total, ammoniacal and nitrate nitrogen in manures and fertilizers; total potassium and phosphorus in manures and fertilizers; micronutrients in some micronutrient fertilizers; water soluble, citrate soluble and citrate insoluble P in fertilizers; chloride other than NH4Cl in ammonium chloride fertilizer; urea-N by hydrolytic method; Ca and S in SSP.

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