DESCRIPTION OF COURSES
SSAC 601 SOIL CLAYS AND CLAY MINERALOGY (3L+1P) II
To impart the fundamentals of crystallography; structure, classification and identification of soil clays and clay minerals; their agricultural, industrial and environmental uses
Introduction and elements of crystallography; crystal morphology, constancy of interfacial angles, laws of rational indices, crystallographic axes, Miller indices, symmetry elements, point groups and space groups, crystal classes and systems.
Major geological formations of India; structure and identification of primary minerals; weathering of rocks and minerals, stability index.
Advanced structural features of clay minerals – stacking of 1:1 layers, tetrahedral rotation, thinning of octahedra, M1 and M2 sites, polytypes of mica, hydroxy interlayered minerals; transformation and synthesis of clay minerals and stability diagrams.
Electrochemical properties of clay; infra-red analysis of clays and clay minerals; electron microscopic and XRD analysis of clay minerals; thermal analysis of clays; chemical and other methods of identification; computation of chemical formula.
Interaction of clay with humus, pesticides, heavy metals; characterization of clay-organic complexes; clay-water interaction.
Non-crystalline clays in soil and their classification – old and modern; crystallinity of clays, paracrystalline and crystalline with defect; amorphous aluminosilicates, allophane, imogolite – synthesis and properties.
Clay mineralogical composition of the Indian soils; role of clay minerals in plant nutrition.
Separation of sand, silt and clay fraction from soil; identification and quantification of minerals in sand, silt and clay fraction; studies on acid clays; determination of specific surface area and CEC of clay; and estimation of smectite and vermiculite by CEC determination method.