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WST 504 / AG 504 PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF WATER MANAGEMENT                                                                               (3L+1P) II

Objective
To teach the basic principles of water management and practices to enhance water productivity.

Theory

UNIT I
Water and its role in plants; water resources of India, major irrigation projects, extent of area and crops irrigated in India and different states.

UNIT II
Soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, soil water movement in soil and plants, transpiration, soil-water- plant relationships, water absorption by plants, plant response to water stress, crop plant adaptation to moisture stress condition.

UNIT III
Soil, plant and meteorological factors determining water needs of crops; scheduling, depth and methods of irrigation; micro-irrigation system; fertigation; management of water in controlled environments and polyhouses.

UNIT IV
Water management of crops and cropping systems, management of soil moisture stress and plant growth, strategies of using limited water supply, quality of irrigation water and management of saline water for irrigation, water-use efficiency.

UNIT V
Water stress – deficit and excess, its effect on growth and development, water stress injury and resistance, management of water stress through soil and crop manipulations, excess of soil water and plant growth; water management in problem soils.

UNIT VI
Drainage – concept and classification. Field drainage systems with special emphasis on crop production and soil salinity. Inter-relationship of drainage with cropping patterns and types of farming. Drainage requirement of crops and methods of field drainage, their layout and spacing.

UNIT VII
Land suitability for irrigation, land irrigability classification; integrated water management in command areas, institution of water management in commands, farmer’s participation in command areas; irrigation legislation.

Practicals
Measurement of soil water potential by using tensiometer, and pressure plate and membrane apparatus. Preparation of soil-moisture characteristics curves. Water flow measurements using different devices. Determination of irrigation requirement and irrigation efficiency. Determination of infiltration rate, saturated/unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Estimation of drain spacing under surface and sub-surface method. Soil moisture constants and measurement. Measurement of evapo- transpiration and water requirement of crops. Water management experiments – planning, conduct, recoding of data and interpretation.

Suggested Readings