Biochemistry

  • Improvement of shelf life and nutritional quality of soya oil
    Soya oil contains 20-30 percent oleic acid and 50-55 percent linoleic acid. To increase these heel life and nutritional quality of soya oil content of poly-unsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid may be decreased and simultaneously the content of mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), oleic acid may be increased. To achieve this fad 2-1gene has been isolated from soybean seed and characterized. The sense and antisense constructs are being prepared in suitable vector which can further be used to develop transgenic soybean with reduced linoleic acid.
  • Isolation and characterization of genes involved in lipid metabolism for biosynthesis of designed oil
    Plants store energy in the seeds in the form of triacylglycerol. The gene which is involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerol has been isolated and characterized from Brassica juncea. Some of the genes are highly specific for its substrate and such genes may be further used for genetic manipulation of oil biosynthesis to get designed oil having specific combination of fatty acids used for different industrial purposes. Such designed oils will have more industrial demand and ultimately farmers will earn more by cultivating and selling such oil seeds.
  • CO sensitivity of crop plants
    C4 crop plants such as maize, corn etc. are more sensitive to pollutant especially carbon monoxide as compared to C3 plants such as wheat, rice etc. It would be a useful practice which will add to farmer's kitty if C4 crop cultivation is avoided in the vicinity of urban location and around intensely used national highways.

Microbiology

  • Biofertilizer's Production Technology
    Biofertilizers are products of beneficial micro-organisms which increase agricultural production by way of nutrient supply especially nitrogen and phosphorus. The Division has developed technologies for the production of different inoculants or biofertilizers suitable for use in various crops. These biofertilizers are quit expensive, simple to use and have no problem of environmental pollution. Judicious use of biofertilizers along with chemical and other organic sources of plant nutrients and proper management practices have shown promising results not only in sustaining productivity and soil health but also in meeting a part of fertilizer requirement for different crops.
    The Division conducted experiments and maintians selected bacteria of high efficiency for various crops which can be used for treating seeds so that when plants grow, abundant bacteria are available near the root zone to influence plant growth. These inoculants are available in market in various formulations, each having its own advantages in storage and usage under different agro-climatic conditions. the quantity of inoculants required for seed treatment or direct application in soil and the methos of its application depend on the crop/soil in which these are to be used.

Nuclear Research Laboratory

  • Quick and non-destructive measurement of oil content in oil seeds and dry rubber content in rubber latex was developed using pulsed NMR spectrometer
  • Rapid screening of wheat genotypes at tillering stage for drought tolerance was developed based on leaf water spin lattice relaxation time T1 and has been used by breeders to develop drought tolerant wheat genotypes
  • Simple traits like leaf water relaxation times (T1 and T2) by NMR, Relative water content (RWC), leaf membrane injury and Canopy Air Temperature Difference (CATD) were related to adaptation to high temperatures and drought stresses in bread wheat
  • Enhanced performance of primed carrot & tomato seeds was explained on the basis of their seed water binding and reorganization of seed water to increase the macromolecular hydration required for metabolic activities
  • Static magnetic field exposure significantly increased leaf area, root length, root surface area and root shoot ratio in moisture stressed maize plants that can be explioted to in rainfed agriculture
  • Micro-wave energy reduced hard coat dormancy in fodder legume Stylosanthes seabrana and germinaton percent increased from 7% in control to 46% in treated seeds
  • Seed water absorption, diffusivity, transverse relaxation time T2, and number of water binding sites were more for drought tolerant genotype compared to the susceptible.

Plant Physiology

  • A. Open top chamber technology (OTC)
    B. Free air carbon dioxide enrichment technology (FACE)
  • Increasing vase life of gladiolus cut flowers by sulphosalicylic acid
  • Delaying the ripening of tomato fruits by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)
  • Increasing lodging tolerance in wheat by proper selection of varieties