Given the national leadership in almost all major agricultural research areas, the Institute has close linkages with almost all annual crop and horticultural crop research institutes, centres, project directorates, coordinated projects as well as a few selected institutes of the ICAR. Similar linkages exist for natural resources and socio-economic research institutions. Collaboration exists with almost all the state agricultural universities (SAUs), selected conventional universities, several of the institutes of the CSIR and the departments of Ministry of Science and Technology such as the Departments of Biotechnology, Space Research, Meteorology and Information and several other ministries/departments/organisations of the Government of India. At the international level, the Institute has close linkages with several of the CGIAR international agricultural research centres (IARCs), more particularly with ICRISAT, CIMMYT, IRRI, IFPRI, INSAR, IIMI, ICARDA and IPGRI and CABI. Among other international organizations, FAO, IAEA, USAID, UNDP, WMO, UNIDO (through ICGEB) and UNEP have been the closest allies. Several bilateral research linkages involving developed and developing countries exist. These include linkages with USDA, selected universities in USA, Rockefeller Foundation, European Commission, ODA, DANIDA, IDRC, SIDA, JAICA, JIRC, CSIRO, ACIAR, MASHAV (Israel), IRRDB, AVRDC (Taiwan), etc.