InfoCrop model predicts that the climate change is likely to reduce wheat yields by ~6 to 17% in 2020 (2011-2040), 13-23% in 2050 (2041-2070) and by ~15-25% in 2080 (2071-2100) scenarios in India, depending on the time of sowing. The irrigated rice yields would reduce by ~4% in 2020 (2010-2039), ~7% in 2050 (2040-2069) and by ~10% in 2080 (2070-2099) scenario. On the other hand, yields of rainfed rice are likely to reduce by ~6% in 2020 scenario, but in 2050 and 2080 scenarios they would decrease only marginally (<2.5%). On all India basis, climate change is projected to cause a mean reduction in mustard yields by ~2% in 2020 (2010-2039), ~7.9% in 2050 (2040-2069) and ~15% in 2080 (2070-2099) scenarios, if no adaptation strategy is followed. Simple adaptation options such as timely sowing, adopting improved and heat tolerant varieties, increased inputs and their use efficiency not only can offset the yield loss but also can improve yields significantly.
Indian agriculture produces 500-550 million tons of crop residues annually. These crop residues are used as animal feed, soil mulch, manure, thatching for rural homes and fuel for domestic and industrial purposes and thus are of tremendous value to farmers. However, a large portion of these crop residues, about 90-140 million tons annually, is burnt on-farm primarily to clear the fields to facilitate planting of succeeding crops (see the figure). Burning of crop residues causes environmental pollution, is hazardous to human health, emits greenhouse gases and causes loss of plant nutrients like N, P, K and S. The crop residues can be successfully used with conservation agriculture to improve soil fertility and sustainability of agriculture. A model plan was developed which may be used as a guideline for managing crop residues.