Last Updated: 04 August 2016
- Growing of cotton, maize, pigeonpea on broad-beds (140 cm, 2 rows) or narrow-beds (70 cm, 1 row) provides higher productivity and profitability than conventional flat-sown crop.
- Incorporation of soybean or groundnut stover @ 5 t/ha in succeeding wheat, reduces N requirement of wheat by 50 kg N/ha and improves productivity.
- Established first week of July as the right sowing time for soybean in Delhi conditions and plant population of 0.45 million/ha as the right planting density to achieve maximum productivity.
- Intercropping of pearlmillet with pigeonpea (30/70 paired row) provides higher yield as compared to sole cropping under dryland conditions.
- Intercropping of Bt cotton with pigeonpea (4:1) enhances the productivity and profitability over sole cropping.
- Sweet sorghum hybrid ‘CSH 22 SS’-wheat system gives more productivity and economic returns than sweet sorghum-mustard/chickpea.
- Pre-emergence tank mix application of atrazine @ 0.75 kg/ha + pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg/ha is effective to control all kind of weeds in maize.
- Pre-emergence tank-mix applications of pendimethalin (1.0 kg/ha) + imazethapyr (50 g/ha) assures complete control of composite weeds, including Cyperus rotundus and higher maize yield.
- Tank-mixes of pendimethalin @ 0.5 kg/ha + imazethapyr @ 75 g/ha as pre-emergence provides complete control of composite weeds including Cyperus rotundus in soybean.
- Sequential applications of clodinofop-propargyl @ 60 g/ha followed by carfentrazone-ethyl @ 30 g/ha or metsulfuron-methyl @ 6 g/ha as post-emergence give complete control of composite weeds and higher productivity of wheat.
- Spray of Zn-EDTA @ 0.5% at tillering + booting + grain filling stages along with the application of recommended NPK enhances the productivity and fortifies Zn in aromatic rice.
- Agronomic biofortification of zinc in rice and wheat increased 5-8 mg Zn per kg in grains of both the cereals.
- Application of 45 kg S/ha (in two splits as basal and at flowering stage) fetches higher soybean seed yield and meets the S requirement of succeeding mustard crop.
- Foliar application of DAP (2%) and sulphate of potash (1%) along with recommended dose of fertilizer meets the season long nutrient demand and increases pigeonpea yield.
- Plant based N application using Chlorophyllmeter indice ( SPAD value 37.5) saves 30-45 kg N in kharif as well as rabi maize.
- Plant water status based (Relative Leaf Water Content and Crop Water Stress Index) irrigation application gives better productivity and WUE than conventional approach of IW/ CPE ratio.
- Sesbania green manuring + FYM @ 10 t/ha + BGA to rice and Leucaena green-leaf manuring + FYM @ 10 t/ha + Azotobacter to wheat produces higher grain and straw of basmati rice-wheat cropping system under organic production.
- Growing mungbean-mustard under broad-bed and furrow system gives higher mustard equivalent yield under dryland conditions.
- Ethiopian mustard + chickpea (1:2) is a promising intercropping system under dryland conditions and gives significantly higher equivalent yield over sole mustard and sole chickpea.
- Groundnut-wheat cropping system is more productive, remunerative and soil health builder than soybean/maize-wheat system.
- Maize-vegetable peas-sunflower cropping system fetches higher yield and economic returns over maize-wheat/fenugreek system.
- Mungbean residue incorporation + direct-seeded rice followed by zero-till wheat + rice residue and summer mungbean produces comparatively higher yields than conventional puddled transplanted rice (TPR) followed by zero-till wheat and TPR – conventional till wheat.
- Under zero-till rainfed conditions, cluster bean performs better than mungbean and pearl millet.
- Integration of herbicide and mustard residue mulch or brown manuring has been found useful to control weeds in maize.
- Tank mix application of pinoxaden @ 50 g/ha + metsulfuron 4 g/ha is effective in controlling all weeds in wheat.
- Tank-mix pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg/ha + carfentrazone-p-ethyl @ 30 g/ha is as effective as the standard practice of post-emergence application of herbicides in wheat.
- Pre-emergence application of diclosulam @ 22 g/ha supplemented with one cono-weeding at 30 day after sowing is a viable option for weed control in soybean.
- In rice grown through SRI, integrated practice of one cono-weeding at 15 DAT followed by bispyribac sodium application @ 25 g/ha at 30 DAT provide effective weed control.
- In gladiolus, pendimethalin (0.75 kg/ha) + metribuzin (0.3 kg/ha) as tank-mix pre-emergence or atrazine (1.0 kg/ha) + residue mulch @ 5 t/ha are highly effective in controlling weeds.
- Aqua-sowing of wheat, chickpea and mustard crops with 15,000-20,000 litre water/ha enhances crop establishment and productivity under rainfed / limited water conditions.
In semi-arid regions of north-western plains of India, moisture scarcity at sowing time of winter crops creates many constraints of germination of seeds, besides, low efficacy of nutrient availability during plant growth. Therefore, to overcome such problems 15,000-20,000 litre of water/ha in the forms of nutrient solution can be applied in the crop root zone at the time of sowing, which is termed as aqua-fertilization. With the adoption of aqua sowing technology, seed and water are drilled together with the help of aqua-ferti-seed drill or aqua plough, which ensures optimum germination for proper crop establishment. Aqua sowing of wheat, chickpea and mustard crops with 15,000-20,000 liter water/ha enhances crop establishment and productivity under rainfed/limited water conditions.
- Mustard + lentil intercropping system proves more remunerative under dryland conditions
Both mustard and lentil are grown during rabi season in irrigated as well as dryland areas. In dryland areas, it has been established that two rows of lentil in between the paired rows of mustard substantially increases the productivity and profitability per unit area per unit time. By adopting this intercropping system farmers may fetch extra income without sacrificing the yield of mustard.
- Coating of 2.0% Zn onto prilled urea increases productivity of rice-wheat cropping system by 10-12%.
Zinc sulphate heptahydrate is a better material than ZnO for coating of urea. Zinc coated urea (2% zinc sulphate heptahydrate) results in higher partial factor productivity, agronomic efficiency, apparent recovery, and physiological efficiency of applied Zn.
- Coating of either gypsum or phosphogypsum @ 5% onto prilled urea increases the productivity and recovery efficiency of the nitrogen by 10-13% under rice-wheat cropping system.
Gypsum-enriched urea can increase the N-use efficiency and yield especially under lowland rice. Use of 10% gypsum-enriched urea can increase 16-18% grain yield and 25% crop N recovery compared to prilled urea. An additional income of about Rs. 7,000/ha can be realized with 10% gypsum-enriched urea. Coating of either gypsum or phosphogypsum slurry @ 5-10% onto prilled urea increases the crop productivity and nitrogen-use efficiency, particularly under lowland rice. Gypsum-enriched urea (GEU) and phosphogypsum-enriched urea (PGEU) are mainly used to reduce leaching of nutrients, especially nitrate-N (NO3- N) to groundwater and their use can increase 15-18% grain yield and 10-13% recovery efficiency of nitrogen under rice-wheat cropping system. An additional income of Rs. 7,000-8,000 can be realized with GEU or PGEU.
- Neem oil coated urea improves yield and nitrogen-use efficiency of rice
The nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated transplanted rice is generally less than 40%, causing reduction in yield, wasteful use of N fertilizer and pollution of air and water. Different slow release N fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors have been employed to increase nitrogen-use efficiency in rice. The most widely tested nitrification inhibitors are N-Serve or Nitrapyrin (2, chloro-6-trichloromethyl pyridine), AM (2-amino-4-chloro-6 methyl pyrimidine) and ST (sulphathiazol) and DCD (dicyandiamide), but were not found cost effective in India. Being a cheaper and effective source of nitrogen, neem oil coated urea has found its practical use by farmers in India. A dose of 100-150 kg N/ha is generally recommended for high yielding varieties of rice. Hybrids where yield potential is 6-8 t/ha will need still higher doses of N (120-160 kg N/ha). A thumb rule will be 20 kg N/tonne of rough rice. Neem coated urea should be applied in 2-3 splits. Two split doses are recommended for short and medium duration varieties, while 3 split doses are recommended for long duration varieties. Coating of prilled urea (PU) with neem-oil proved beneficial over uncoated PU (no neem-oil coating), especially with respect to grain yield, yield attributes, agronomic efficiency, apparent nitrogen recovery and net returns of rice (Table 1). To be precise, coating of PU with 1,000 mg neem-oil/kg PU was a better source over uncoated PU. In on-farm field trials in the village of Delhi, India neem-oil emulsion coated urea gave a 6.3 to 11.9% increase in rice yield It is evident from Table 1 that neem-oil coated urea gives Rs. 13,000/ha additional net returns over common (uncoated) urea. Neem-oil coated urea is now available in the market and suitable for all rice and vegetable growing areas of the country.
- Sulfosulfuron @ 25 g/ha, pinoxaden @ 50 g/ha, pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg/ha pre-emergence can effectively control most resistant/ cross-resistant populations of Phalaris minor.
Sulfosulfuron and pinoxaden should be applied as post-emergence at 30 days after sowing of wheat, while pendimethalin as pre-emergence at 1-2 DAS. Knap sack sprayer fitted with flat fan nozzle may be used for spraying herbicides with 350-400 litre of water per ha.
- Sequential application of pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg/ha as pre-emergence followed by (fb) pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg/ha as broadcast (sand mix) at 30 days after transplanting (DATP), and pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg/ha + 1 hand weeding results in comparable onion bulb yield with 3 hand weeding.
- Apply pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg/ha just one day after transplanting of onion dissolving in 500 litres water per ha. Mix the quantity of pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg/ha in 50 kg of sand and broadcast at 30 days after transplanting (DATP) in the rows of onion plants to control all kinds of late-emerging weeds.
- Application of 4 cm irrigation at 50 mm CPE to raised-bed planting of potato and 4 cm irrigation at 25 mm CPE to furrow planted cauliflower are more productive.
Irrigating potato at 50 mm CPE produced tuber yield of 31.5 t/ha, and net returns Rs. 1, 21,504 with benefit:cost ratio 1.8. In case of cauliflower, planting and irrigation in furrows recorded significantly higher marketable yield (14.3 t/ha) in comparison to flat planting and irrigation (13.2 t/ha). Consumptive use of water was lower in planting and irrigation in furrows (14.2 cm), which enhanced water-use efficiency (1007 kg/ha cm). The net returns (Rs. 67,576/ha) and benefit:cost (3.6) ratio were also higher with planting and irrigating cauliflower in furrows.
- Among potato based intercropping systems, potato + radish intercropping was the best when each furrow was irrigated at 1.2 IW/CPE. However, WUE and net returns were the highest in potato + radish intercropping under irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE in each furrow.
Applying irrigation water in each furrow produced higher yields of potato (11.9 t/ha), palak (37.3 t/ha, radish (45.2 t/ha), potato equivalent yield (22.8 t/ha), net returns (Rs.55, 040/ha) and B:C ratio (1.28). Scheduling irrigation at IW/CPE ratio 1.2 recorded the highest yields of potato tuber (12 t/ha), palak (38.3 t/ha), radish (48.5 t/ha), potato equivalent yield (23.6 t/ha), net returns (Rs.56,940/ha), B:C ratio (1.69) and the highest water-use efficiency with respect to potato equivalent yield (578.00 kg/ha cm).
- Bed-planted crop of wheat produced the same yield as flat-sown crop and saved 15-20% of irrigation water.
Bed planting helps to increase productivity of kharif crops like maize, pigeonpea, greengram, soybean, and cotton which are subject to waterlogging and water deficit. Beds formed in kharif season can be used without any preparatory tillage for sowing of succeeding wheat. This saves fuel, time and energy. Bed planting saves 20-30% irrigation water for rabi crops like wheat, mustard and summer greengram.
- Sweet sorghum hybrid-wheat system gives more productivity and profit than sweet sorghum-mustard/chickpea.
Sweet sorghum has high concentration of soluble sugars in the plant juice. It is harvested at physiological maturity stage for grain, green fodder and green stem for extraction of juice, which is fermented to produce ethanol. As compared to sugarcane, it is short duration, has less water requirement and tolerates stress environment. Potential areas are western Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra subject to industrial support. Potential crop sequence is sweet sorghum–wheat.
- Perfected soil solarization technique for effective weed control in soybean-wheat, brinjal-wheat, soybean-broccoli cropping systems.
- Soil solarization is done by covering soil surface with transparent polythene film. It increases temperature of soil to a level lethal to weed seeds and many soil-borne microorganisms. It is adopted as a pre-planting treatment and employed during hot summer months (May-June). Soil solarization for four weeks during May-June brought about significant increase in yield to the tune of 160% in soybean, 83% in wheat and 1028% in brinjal over their respective non-solarized control.
Other important accomplishments
- Introduced Egyptian clover (Berseem-Trifolium alexandrinum L.) as a green fodder for the first time in the country.
- Introduced and perfected the concept of ley farming.
- Developed the agronomy of high yielding varieties of rice, dwarf wheat, maize, pearl millet, pulses, oilseeds, cotton, and vegetable crops.
- Developed the concept and cultivation technology of winter maize, summer green gram, spring sunflower and late sown lentil.
- Developed the concepts and techniques for placement of fertilizers in moist zone and use of mulches and transpiration suppressants under rainfed conditions.
- Developed the concept of scheduling of irrigation based on the critical physiological stages of crops.
- Conceptualized and developed Sunken Screen Evaporimeter for scheduling of irrigation on volumetric basis, and IW: CPE ratio for various crops.
- Developed the concept of measurement of effective rainfall, which led to the perfect determination of optimum moisture conditions in the soil profile.
- Fabricated various gadgets like tensiometer and gypsum block for in situ moisture determination.
- Harnessed nitrogen economy through Sesbania green manuring, summer green gram and crop residues.
- Developed and perfected the concept of nitrification inhibitors and slow release nitrogenous fertilizers, such as neem cake/oil coated urea, zinc-coated urea, gypsum coated urea, sulphur coated urea for higher N-use efficiency in rice.
- Developed techniques of super-composting for direct use of low grade rock phosphate, tissue testing and foliar feeding of nutrients.
- Assessed and quantified nitrogen and phosphorus-use efficiency in multiple cropping systems by the use of tracer techniques.
- Optimized the techniques for enriching fertilizers with S and Zn.
- Demonstrated the role of Rhizobium in legumes, Azotobacter and Azospirillum in cereals, and phosphorus-solubilizing micro-organisms and VAM in cereals, legumes and oilseeds for higher productivity.
- Developed effective weed control technologies: use of 2,4-D, and 2,4-D (250 g/ha) + urea (3%) first time in wheat; herbicide band application; stale seed-bed; and use of dormancy breaker like KNO3 or GA3 with herbicides.
- Determined for the first time the economic threshold level (ETL) of Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Cyperus rotundus L. in soybean, and Chenopodium album L., Phalaris minor Retz. And Avena sterilis ssp ludoviciana (Dur.) in wheat through models.
- Developed integrated weed management schedules for major crops and cropping systems, including the management of deadly weed - Parthenium hysterophorus; noxious weed - Cyperus rotundus;and resistant/cross-resistant Phalaris minor.
- Evolved the concept of relay cropping with 400% intensity for temporal and spatial intensification, viz., maize-potato-wheat-green gram.
- Perfected the concept of multi-storeyed cropping, intercropping of short-duration legumes and oilseeds with cereals like pearlmillet, sorghum and maize.
- Recommended the inclusion of green gram in rice-wheat cropping system for higher profitability and sustainability.
- Inclusion of summer mungbean in rice-wheat cropping system for dual purpose enhanced the profitability, N economy, soil physical, chemical and biological properties.